Network connectivity and low-power mode energy consumption
Since 'standby' was recognized as an energy efficiency issue, a growing number of countries have put policies in place that reduce low power mode energy consumption. However, most of these policies, e.g. the EU Ecodesign regulation on standby and off modes, only target the most simple low power modes. Meanwhile, a rapidly increasing number of products have greater numbers and increasingly complex low power modes, such as networked devices or instant coffee machines.
For networked devices, the complexity arises from the fact that many products are already or will be in future connected to a network and will maintain a connection to the network when the product is not performing one of its main functions. Most standby definitions and levels do not take this complexity into account. As a result, only a few policies cover network-connected modes, and not in a consistent or comprehensive way.
This paper, presented at the EEDAL 2009 Conference, reviews the state of the art regarding low power modes generally, network connectivity, and its relation to standby and other low power modes.
It can be downloaded from http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/nordman/docs/eedal-2009-nordman.pdf
EnergyConsult is a boutique consultancy firm specialising in the areas of energy efficiency and greenhouse emission abatement. For the last eight years EnergyConsult has provided consulting services to government departments, private companies, energy utilities, industry associations, international aid agencies and multilateral banks.
http://www.energyconsult.com.au/Expertise/ExpertiseMain.htm#MEPS & Energy Labelling will guide you to their reports on Minimum Energy Performance Standards.
Standard and Labels Information Clearinghouse - CLASP
The Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Programme (CLASP) was established as a partnership in 1999 to helps S&L policymakers and practitioners foster socio-economic development, improve the environment, stimulate global trade, and alleviate poverty. It is an outgrowth of an initiative begun in 1996 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). In 2005, CLASP became a non-profit organization.
CLASP's website is probably the most comprehensive website on standards and labelling of appliances worldwide.
Background information on Standby Power
In this document, you find background information on Standby Power, such as : what is Standby Power , how large is Standby Power, can Standby Power be reduced ?
International Projects on Standby Power
This website, supported by the Australian government, gives an overview of many ongoing projects related to standby losses of appliances worldwide :
Low-Power Mode Energy Consumption In California Homes
In a recently published study of Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), low-power mode energy use in Californian homes has been estimated by collecting data on over 170 different types of electricity-consuming products in 75 homes. For 2006, the average low-power mode use in California was estimated to be 112 W per home (or about 980 kWh/year). This is roughly 13 percent of residential electricity use. If low-power mode energy use were treated as a unique end use, it would rank fourth in Californian homes above air conditioning, miscellaneous, and pools and spas.
The average California home has about 44 products with one or more low-power modes, and LBNL warns that low-power mode energy use will increase in the future because of a greater fraction of products having low-power modes and, to a lesser extent, new product types with low-power modes.
The entire report can be downloaded from www.energy.ca.gov/publications/displayOneReport.php?pubNum=CEC-500-2008-035
International Energy Agency 4E Implementing Agreement - Standby Annex
In 2008, a new IEA Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme on Efficiency Electrical End-use Equipment (4E) was approved by the IEA Board. The 4E Implementing agreement aims on sharing knowledge on a global scale and includes benchmarking and mapping energy saving potential in electrical appliances.
The new 4E Standby Annex is being led by Australia and the USA. The purpose of this Annex is to undertake co-ordinated activities in support of policies which target the reduction of Standby Power. It is structured into two streams: (1) Support for policies to tackle standby power and (2) Information collection and dissemination. The project will be conducted over 4 years. Some of the activities relating to the Standby Annex are workshops, research and dissemination of horizontal approaches to policy setting including options by modes, groups of appliances, functions or clusters of functions. It is also planned to assist the development standby power policies by maintaining information on national assessment studies, and providing guidance on how such studies should be undertaken. Further information on the Standby Annex can be obtained from www.iea-4e.org.
Measured Stand-By Losses in Stores in Australia
Australia has been measuring the standby power consumption of new appliances since 2001, with the latest survey results to be available in the near future. This report provides the interim results for almost 300 appliances, collected in August 2008.
Preparatory Study for the Eco-Design Directive Lot "Netwerked Standby"
The European Council and the European Parliament adopted a Commission proposal for a Directive on establishing a framework for setting Ecodesign requirements (e.g. energy efficiency) for all energy using products in the residential, tertiary, and industrial sectors.
The first step in considering whether and which ecodesign requirements should be set for a particular product, is a preparatory study recommending ways to improve the environmental performance of the product. The preparatory study will provide the necessary information to prepare for the next phases in the policy process (carried out by the Commission) and in particular the impact assessment, the consultation forum, and the possible draft implementing measures laying down ecodesign requirements for products.
The present study is the preparatory study focusing on Networked standby. It started in 2009 and is carried out by Fraunhofer IZM and BIO Intelligence Service.
Low-Power Mode Energy Consumption In European Homes
In a recently finished Intelligent Energy for Europe project, REMODECE (Residential Monitoring to Decrease Energy Use and Carbon Emissions in Europe), the electricity use of appliances in houses has been measured in detail in some 1.300 homes across the EU. In average the standby consumption measured is about 30 Watt and 169 kWh per household per year, which is about 6.3 % of the total annual energy consumption per household. The standby energy that are accounted for aggregates up to about 21.5 TWh for all households in the participating countries, responsible for about 9,4 million ton CO2 per year.
Standby Power Use and the IEA '1-Watt Plan'
The International Energy Agency has worked to raise the profile of standby power since the early 1990's through its publications, international conferences and policy advice to governments. In 1999, the IEA proposed that all countries harmonise energy policies to reduce standby power, setting the target of 1-Watt per device. This website leads to an overview of IEA publications and Workshop Proceedings on Standby Losses :